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Lesson 06: Tone and Value

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    Class# 6: Tone and Value                               June 14 & 15

    Materials needed:  
Strathmore Sketchbook Pad (9 x 12)
Drawing pencils
Eraser

    Today we are going to start by viewing the Elements of Art.  They are a commonly used group of aspects of a work of artused in teaching and analysis, in combination with the principles of art(which we will cover in the next class).
Here are the elements of art:

    1.           Texture:The texture is the quality of a surface or the way any work of art is represented. Lines and shading can be used to create different textures as well. For example, if one is portraying certain fabrics, one needs to give the feeling of the right texture so that it closely resembles what the artist is trying to convey.

    2.           Form:Form may be created by the forming of two or more shapes or as three-dimensional shape (cube, pyramid, sphere, etc.). It may be enhanced by tone, texture and color. Form is considered three-dimensional showing height, width and depth. Examples of these are sculpture, theater play and figurines.

    3.           Space:  Space is the area provided for a particular purpose. It may have two dimensions (length and width), such as a floor, or it may have three dimensions (length, width, and height). Space includes the background, foreground and middle ground. Space refers to the distances or areas around, between or within components of a piece. There are two types of space: positive and negative space. Positive space refers to the space of a shape representing the subject matter. Negative space refers to the space around and between the subject matter.

    4.           Line:  Line is most easily defined as a mark that spans a distance between two points (or the path of a moving point), taking any form along the way. As an art element, line pertains to the use of various marks, outlines and implied lines in artwork and design, most often used to define shape in two-dimensional work. Implied line is the path that the viewer's eye takes as it follows shapes, colors, and form along a path, but may not be continuous or physically connected, such as the line created by a dancer's arms, torso, and legs when performing an arabesque.

    5.           Shape:  Shape pertains to the use of areas in two dimensional space that can be defined by edges, setting one flat specific space apart from another. Shapes can be geometric (e.g.: square, circle, triangle, hexagon, etc.) or organic (such as the shape of a puddle, blob, leaf, cloud, etc.) in nature. Shapes are defined by other elements of art: Space, Line, Texture, Value, Color, Form.

    6.           Color:  Color pertains to the use of hue in artwork and design. Color is defined as primary colors(red, yellow, blue)which cannot bemixed in pigmentfrom other hues and secondary colors (green, orange, purple) which are directly mixed from combinations of primary colors. Further combinations of primary and secondary colors create tertiary (and more) hues. Tint and Shade are references to adding variations in Value; other tertiary colors are derived by mixing either a primary or secondary color with a neutral color. e.g. Red + White = Pink.

    7.           Value:  Value, or tone, refers to the use of light and dark, shade and highlight, in an artwork. Black-and-white photography depends entirely on value to define its subjects. Value is directly related to contrast.

     

    Today’s class in going to be focusing on value and tone.  
Here are some examples of black and white artwork that demonstrates value.

    1. In this drawing of a manikin (human figure) the lightest value is the head of the manikin and the darkest value is the background:


    http://www.dawnsbrain.com/lesson-images/art_2006_manikin_values.jpg

    2.The artist MC Escher made world with a range of tone.  Here are some examples:


    http://www.cord.edu/faculty/andersod/escher_convex.jpg

    ▪                                   http://www.math.technion.ac.il/~rl/M.C.Escher/2/escher-reptiles.gif

    ▪                                   http://www.meridian.net.au/Art/Artists/MCEscher/Gallery/Images/escher-ascending-and-descending-medium.jpg

    ◦                   The American photographer Ansel Adams made black and white photographs that are rich in tone and value.  Here are some examples:


    ▪                                   http://fansiter.com/2009/08/anseladamsprint.jpg

    ▪                                   http://www.historyplace.com/unitedstates/adams/F03.jpg

    ▪                                   http://www.shariblog.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/02/main_anselAdamsPhotography.jpg

    3.           In order to increase your understanding you are going to make a value scale.  Here are the steps that you must follow:

    ◦                   Draw 9 one inch by three inch squares on a piece of paper. 

    ◦                   Leave the first square blank.

    ◦                   Make the last square (No. 9) as dark as you can without squashing the grain of the paper.

    ◦                   Gradate the middle squares into steps using a combination of pencils grades for each step.

    ◦                   Your final drawing should look like this:

    ◦                   http://3.bp.blogspot.com/_N3oCGLI0R0I/TBFRF0SMxiI/AAAAAAAAAYU/tOaI-VOrnXM/s1600/value_scale.jpg

    4.           Next, you are going to try applying what you have learned about value to 3 basic shapes.  They are the sphere (circle), the pyramid and a square. 

    ◦                   Draw each of these three shapes on one piece of paper so that it fills most of the page.


    ◦                   Next, on each page draw the sun in the upper left hand corner of the page with your pencil.  This sun is your light source.  The side of your shape that is close to the sun is going to be light in value (light gray to white).  The side of your shape that is not close to the sun is going to be dark in value (dark gray and black).  Here is an example that you can look at:


    ▪                                   http://www.paulcarneyarts.com/images/shadow_ball/step_1.gif

    ◦                   Now color each one of your shapes so that each one has all the values that you made in your value scale.  This should include a range from dark black, dark gray, medium gray, light gray and white.  Your final drawings of each shape should look something like this:

    Sphere:http://www.williamsclass.com/ElectiveClassArt/ShadeValueSphere.jpg 

Square:http://polymathprogrammer.com/images/blog/200808/lightanglesonobjectvertices.jpg

Pyramid (pretend it is black & white not color):https://lh3.googleusercontent.com/-SHb1-568MjM/TX1412wWBjI/AAAAAAAABKU/p1aj2DRBibE/Pyramid.jpg
After you have done your drawings, each on a single piece of paper, scan your work (should be 4 pages of drawings total) and upload it onto your Flickr page.  In the Flickr “Description” panel be sure to include what the drawing is.  Any work that has not been uploaded by the evening of June 15 will be marked down one letter grade.
This concludes the sixth class for AR101.  If you have any questions regarding the material or assignment please email your instructor at art101@comfsm.fm

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