COM-FSM

Lesson 09: Perspective Drawing

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    Class# 9: Perspective Drawing             March 9 - 13, 2015                    

    Materials needed:  
Pencils
Pad of Paper
Ruler
Eraser

    CSLO 1.8 Student will be able to use perspective to create the illusion of 3 dimensional space.

    CSLO 3.1 Student will be able to evaluate his/her own work of art.

    In the context of drawing or painting, perspective is the technique an artist uses to create the illusion of three dimensions on a flat surface. Simply put, perspective is a means of fooling the viewer's eye. There only appears to be depth or receding space in that work.
Attempts to evolve a system of perspective are usually considered to have begun around the 5th century B.C. in the art of Ancient Greece as part of a developing interest in illusionism.  Here is an example of a work from that period:

http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/works-of-art/07.286.84

    One of the early Italian artists to practice perspective was Melozzo da Forli and on the link below you can see an example of “down to up” perspective in his frescoes at Loreto.

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/99/Loreto_Fresko.jpg

    The first book to include a treatise on perspective, 'On Painting'was published by Leon Battista Albertiin 1436.

    Here are some examples of modern artists who incorporate perspective into their work:

    We have looked as his work in other classes but MC Escher is an example of an artist who has used perspective in his art to create different kinds of effects: 

http://www.mcescher.com/Biography/lw439f14.jpg

    http://users.erols.com/ziring/e-strt.jpg



    http://britton.disted.camosun.bc.ca/escher/drawing_hands.jpg

    Here is a link to an artwork by a street artist drawn on the ground with chalk:
http://www.moillusions.com/wpcontent/uploads/i207.photobucket.com/albums/bb234/
vurdlak8/illusions/help.jpg

    Although they are not what could be considered fine art, video game graphics have perspective to make the pictures feel more realistic to the players:

http://cdn.gamerant.com/wp-content/uploads/Crysis-2-Shooting.jpg

    Now let’s review the different kinds of perspective:

    One-point perspective:  One vanishing point is typically used for roads, railway tracks, hallways, or buildings viewed so that the front is directly facing the viewer. Any objects that are made up of lines either directly parallel with the viewer's line of sight or directly perpendicular (the railroad slats) can be represented with one-point perspective.  Here is a photograph that demonstrates one-point perspective:

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/2a/Railroad-Tracks-Perspective.jpg

    Here is how you draw one point perspective.

    1.           First, take out a piece of sketchbook paper.

    2.           Using your ruler draw a horizontal line that extends across most of your paper.

    Now draw a rectangle shape that is horizontal to the horizontal line that you have already drawn. 

    3.           Next draw a vanishing point directly behind the rectangle that you have sketched on your horizon line. 

    4.           Now draw two lines from the top corners of your rectangle back to your vanishing point.

    5.           Now draw a horizontal line between the two lines that you have drawn back to your vanishing point on your horizon line. 

    6.           Now erase the lines that extend back to your vanishing point, leaving only the top of the rectangle that you drew. Below is a link to a video demonstrating one-point perspective.

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_embedded&v=zrLBNYA_KNE

    Just in case you are not clear here are some examples of one-point perspective drawings:

http://smithsonianstudioarts.typepad.com/.a/6a01157246cc69970b0148c7be979b970c-32
0wi
http://2.bp.blogspot.com/_3rWnmhnIhB4/SSUk8skZeI/AAAAAAAAAjQ/SRTaaEyQ3RM/s1600
/perpsective5erase.jpg

    Two-point perspective:  Two-point perspective can be used to draw the same objects as one-point perspective, rotated: looking at the corner of a house, or looking at two forked roads shrink into the distance, for example. One point represents one set of parallel lines; the other point represents the other.

    Here is an example of a city block drawn in two-point perspective:

http://kingfishers.ednet.ns.ca/art/grade10/images/perspective-street_corner.jpg

    Here is how you draw in two-point perspective.  As you read these instructions, please refer to this graphic to make sure that you are doing this correctly:

http://www.walterfoster.com/uploads/pics/two-point-perspective.jpg

    1.           Repeat the first step you did for one-point perspective.  Using your ruler, draw a horizontal horizon line across your page. 


    2.           Next, draw two vanishing points near the two ends of your horizon line.  


    3.           Now draw one single vertical line in the middle of your paper below the horizon line.  This vertical line should be short. 


    4.           Next, using your ruler, draw lines from the top and bottom of your single vertical line back to both of your vanishing points.


    5.           Draw two more vertical lines about an inch away from your first vertical line on either side.  This will give you the front of the shape you are drawing in two-point perspective. 


    6.           Next, draw a line from the top of the two new vertical lines that you just drew back to your horizon line.  If you are getting lost, please refer to this drawing and try to copy what you see here: http://www.walterfoster.com/uploads/pics/two-point-perspective.jpg

    7.           Now erase the extra lines between the back corners of your shape and your horizon lines.  Here is what you drawing should look like when finished: http://www.drawingcoach.com/image-files/two_point_perspective_st5.gif

    (Important reminders:  Keep all vertical lines exactly vertical.  Use the edge of your paper as a reference.  If the vertical lines begin to slant, the object you are drawing begins to go flat.  The vanishing points must be located on the horizon line and on the paper.)

    Assignment:
Now that you have reviewed how to draw in one-point and two-point perspective, you will have a homework assignment to test your understanding of this concept.   You assignment is to draw a house in two-point perspective.  While that sounds complicated, remember that the drawing that you did for your two-point perspective exercise is the basic shape of the corner of the house.

What else can you add to make your house feel like a house? A door?  Windows?  A garden?  Trees?

Embellish your two point perspective drawing with details, keeping in mind everything that you have learned in this class to date such as different kinds of lines, light and dark values, composition, negative space and color theory (you are welcome to add color to your drawing once you have your house sketched out in two point perspective.)

Here are some examples of what your house could look like:

http://www.picturescape.co.uk/graphics/class%20graphics/perspective%202.jpg

    http://3.bp.blogspot.com/_F94JTwTwuvM/TP7skEdXtOI/AAAAAAAAATQ/xyL0Z1lUFss/s1600
/step+3+in+drawing+a+one+point+perspective+house.jpg

    After you have drawn your house, you should scan it and upload it onto your Flickr page.  In the Flickr “Description” panel be sure to include that this is your two-point perspective homework.  Any work that has not been uploaded by the evening of March 13, will be marked down one letter grade for each week day it is late.

    Complete the "Student Rating" section of the rubric for this assignment.  The rubric is located in the files at the bottom of this page. Email the completed rubric to art101@com.fsm.

    This concludes the ninth class for AR101.  If you have any questions regarding the material or assignment please email your instructor at art101@comfsm

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